Thanks to a generous grant from a prestigious foundation, an ambitious multilingual project entitled Investigation of the phenomenology and impact of perceived spontaneous and direct After-Death Communications (ADCs) was conducted from February 2018 to January 2020.
By collecting information about how ADCs occur and unfold, and by analyzing their impact on individuals’ lives, we aim to make these results accessible to people who face the death of a loved one, as well as to anyone sensitized to the finite nature of human existence.
To achieve the various objectives of the research project, we have developed an on-line questionnaire of 194 questions (including follow-up questions after affirmative responses), which was accessible online for 6 months.
1,004 questionnaires were completed
- In English: 416
- In French: 440
- In Spanish: 148
→ More than 2 million words just for the full ADC accounts
→ Largest multilingual collection of spontaneous modern-day ADCs worldwide
The results presented in the booklets refer to the totality of the collected data, namely the combination of the replies of the 1,004 questionnaires completed in English, French, and Spanish – the purpose of these publications is to present some of the quantitative results of the survey. The thematic analyses of the collected data are presented in individual papers.
Results are also published in Explore (2021) as “Perceptual phenomena associated with spontaneous experiences of after-death communication: Analysis of visual, tactile, auditory and olfactory sensations”, authored by Marjorie Woollacott, Chris A. Roe, Callum E. Cooper, David Lorimer, and Evelyn Elsaesser.
- Please visit tab “ADCs|Publication” of the current page for more details on our publications – You are welcome to down-load and share the booklets !
Investigation of the phenomenology and impact of perceived spontaneous and direct After-Death Communications (ADCs)
A spontaneous After-Death Communication (ADC) occurs when a mourner unexpectedly perceives a deceased person through the senses of sight, hearing, smell, or touch. Very commonly, experients solely “feel the presence” of the deceased person or perceive a contact or a communication during sleep or hypnagogic states. Perceived ADCs occur frequently, with an estimated 40-50% of mourners having experienced one or more spontaneous ADCs. Testimonies collected in different countries and since the last century suggest this phenomenon to be universal and timeless. Despite their widespread occurrence, perceived ADCs, paradoxically, have been little researched and are absent from the media and public discourse. As a consequence, persons who experience an ADC (experients) usually have no frame of reference in terms of which to understand, integrate and benefit fully from this experience which doesn’t match mainstream conceptions of reality. Whatever the ontological status of perceived ADCs might be, they are perceived as real by a great number of persons and therefore certainly deserve their place on the consciousness research agenda.
The objective of this 2-year research project is to gain a better understanding of the phenomenology and the impact of perceived spontaneous and direct After-Death Communications. On the basis of a specially designed online questionnaire, the data are expected to provide insights into the profile of the experients; the profile of the deceased person supposedly initiating the contact; the circumstances of occurrence; the type, unfolding and message of perceived ADCs; and their impact on experients. The outcome should permit disclosure of this hidden social phenomenon to the scientific community and the public by means of publications, conferences, and media events.
ADCs occur frequently, with an estimated 40-50% of people, in particular mourners, having experienced one or more spontaneous ADCs. Despite their widespread occurrence, perceived ADCs have paradoxically been little researched and are absent from the media and public discourse. As a consequence, persons who experience a perceived ADC (experients) usually have no frame of reference in terms of which to understand, integrate and benefit fully from this experience which doesn’t match mainstream conceptions of reality.
ADCs are common, supposedly universal, and have a strong and lasting psychological impact on experients. A better understanding of their phenomenology and impact is essential not only for experients but for the public at large, since these experiences provide a completely new perspective of death and life. The research project aims at bridging science and spirituality by shedding light on this major social phenomenon. Perceived After-Death Communications are not an isolated phenomenon but occur in the larger context of other experiences around death, such as death-bed visions which occur shortly before demise. This research project will contribute to the scientific inquiry of “unusual experiences” around death.
The first objective is to describe the phenomenology of perceived ADCs. The project will therefore answer the following questions: Who has an ADC? Under which circumstances? In what form (type)? How do these experiences unfold? What are the messages of ADCs? Who are the deceased persons supposedly initiating the contact? What was/is their relation with the experients? Are there differences between countries? Research questions will be elaborated further on the basis of a thorough review of the existing research literature on ADCs.
The second objective is to analyse the impact of perceived ADCs on experients. The following questions will be addressed: How do experients experience ADCs? What is the impact on experients? How does it influence the grieving process? Does the national and social context influence individuals’ experiences?
The third objective will consist in disseminating the research results as largely as possible to the scientific community and the general public. By collecting information about how perceived ADCs occur and unfold, and by analysing their impact on individuals’ lives, we aim at making these results accessible to people who face the death of a close relative, partner or friend, and to the broad public. Following an applied research orientation, we will emphasize in our conclusions the relevance of our results for the public, and highlight the possible policy implications. The research project will contribute to raising awareness about perceived ADCs and have a practical impact on a large number of persons.
Considering the lack of research and knowledge on ADCs, we expect the results of this exploratory research to open up further questions. Therefore the project could also enable us to specify new research hypotheses which may be pursued in the future in the frame of a large scale research, involving research teams in different countries.
Data and methodology
The research will be led in several European countries (Switzerland, France, the United Kingdom and Spain) and the United States. The analysis and comparison of data of the 200 participants will provide insight into the supposedly universal nature of this phenomenon, making this the first comparative ADC research.
Participants will be invited to complete an online survey about the perceived ADC they experienced and about some key socioeconomic characteristics. This data will allow us, using descriptive statistics, to depict the main characteristics about our sample and the different profiles of ADC experients.
The main themes of the questionnaire are the following : circumstances of occurrence, type of ADC, message conveyed, emotions and sense of reality associated with the experience, impact and implications for the grieving process; profile of the experient, and profile of the deceased person perceived (including cause of death).
Finally, for participants who will have previously agreed to the anonymized publication of their testimonies, the collected data will be archived in a multi-lingual, international, open access database, hosted and up-dated by the University of Northampton. This database will eventually be available on a dedicated website to the scientific community for further analysis and to the broad public, in order to make the perceived ADC phenomenon more visible in society.
Specialist of experiences related to death, author | CH
Professor, Centre Lead for the Psychology and Social Sciences Research Centre, Faculty of Health & Society, University of Northampton | UK
PhD, Lecturer in Psychology,
|Professor emeritus Kenneth Ring, University of Connecticut, U.S.A.|
|Professor Peter Fenwick, M.D., F.R.C. Psych. Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, U.K. Mental Health Group, University of Southampton, U.K.|
|Professor J. Kim Penberthy, Chester F. Carlson Professor of Psychiatry & Neurobehavioral Sciences, Division of Perceptual Studies, University of Virginia, School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA|
|David Lorimer, Scientific and Medical Network (SMN), U.K.|
Aday, R.H. (1984-85). Belief in afterlife and death anxiety. Omega, Journal of Death and Dying, 15, 67-75.
Alderson-Day, B. (2016). The silent companions. The Psychologist, 29 (4), 272-275.
Alexander, H. (1997). Experiences of bereavement. Oxford: Lion.
Arcangel, D. (2005). Afterlife encounters. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads.
Auerbach, L. (1994). Psychic frontiers: Mirror, mirror on the wall. Fate, 47 (9), 9-10.
Badham, P. (1991). Death and immortality: Towards a global synthesis. Christian Parapsychologist, 9 (2), 53-59.
Badham, P. (1993). The Christian hope and parapsychological research. Christian Parapsychologist, 10 (1), 2-11.
Bains, C.J. (2014). A Thematic Analysis Exploring the Effects of Mediumship on Hope, Resilience, and Post-Traumatic Growth in the Bereaved. Unpublished master’s thesis, Bucks New University, Buckinghamshire, UK.
Baker, R. A. (1996). Hidden memories: Voices and vision from within. New York: Prometheus Books.
Barrett, D. (1991-92). Through a glass darkly: Images of the dead in dreams. Omega, Journal of Death and Dying, 24, 97-108.
Barrett, W. (1926). Deathbed visions. London: Rider & Co.
Bennett, G., & Bennett, K.M. (2000). The presence of the dead: An empirical study. Mortality, 5 (2), 139-157.
Berger, A.S. (1995). Quoth the raven: Bereavement and the paranormal. Omega, Journal of Death and Dying, 31, 1-10.
Berk, L.E. (2006). Child development (7th Ed.). New York: Pearson.
Botkin, A.L., with Hogan, R.C. (2005). Induced after death communications: A new therapy for healing and trauma. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads.
Burton, J. (1980). Survivors’ Subjective Experiences of the Deceased. Unpublished doctoral thesis, International College, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Burton, J. (1982). Contact with the dead: A common experience? Fate, 35 (4), 65-73.
Chow, A.Y.M. (2010). The role of hope in bereavement for Chinese people in Hong Kong. Death Studies, 34 (4), 330-350.
Conant, R.D. (1992). Widow’s Experiences of Intrusive Memory and ‘‘Sense of Presence’’ of the Deceased after Sudden and Untimely Death of a Spouse During Mid-Life. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, Newton, MA.
Cooper, C.E. (2011). Creativity, Belief in an Afterlife, and their Relationship to Death Anxiety: A Preliminary Investigation. Unpublished master’s thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
Cooper, C.E. (2012). Telephone calls from the dead. Portsmouth: Tricorn Books.
Cooper, C.E. (2013). Post-death experiences and the emotion of hope. Journal for Spiritual and Consciousness Studies, 36 (1), 24-28.
Cooper, C.E. (2014). An analysis of exceptional experiences involving telecommunication technology. Journal of Parapsychology, 78, 209-222.
Cooper, C.E. (2016). The therapeutic nature of anomalous events: A union of positive psychology and parapsychology. In M.D. Smith, & P. Worth (Eds.) 2nd Applied Positive Psychology Symposium: Proceedings of Presented Papers (pp. 98-107). High Wycombe: Bucks New University.
Cox, C.J., Cooper, C.E., & Smith, M.D. (2017). Exploring the effects of mediumship on hope, resilience, and post-traumatic growth in bereavement. Journal of Exceptional Experiences and Psychology, 5 (2), 6-15.
de Boismont, A. B. (1860). On hallucinations: A history and explanation of apparitions, visions, dreams, ecstacy, magnetism, and somnambulism. Columnus, O.: Joseph H. Riley & Co.
Devers, E. (1987). Experiencing an Encounter with the Deceased. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Devers, E. (1994). Experiencing the deceased. Florida Nursing Review, 1, 7-13.
Devers, E. (1997). Goodbye again. Missouri: Andrews and McMeel.
Drewry, M.D.L. (2002). Purported After-Death Communication and its Role in the Recovery of Bereaved Individuals: A Phenomenological Analysis. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Califoria Institute for Human Sciences, Encinitas, CA, USA.
Drewry, M.D.L. (2003). Purported after-death communication and its role in the recovery of bereaved individuals: A phenomenological study. Proceedings, Annual Conference of the Academy of Religion and Psychical Research, 2003 (pp. 74-87). Bloomfield, CT: Academy of Religion and Psychical Research.
Evenden, R.E. (2013). A Counselling Approach to Mediumship: Adaptive outcomes of Grief following Bereavement. Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Northampton, UK.
Evenden, R.E., & Cooper, C.E. (2018). Positive psychology in the clinical parapsychology setting. In M.D. Smith, & P. Worth (Eds.) 4th Applied Positive Psychology Symposium: Proceedings of Presented Papers (pp. 98-107). High Wycombe: Bucks New University.
Evenden, R.E., Cooper, C.E., & Mitchell, G. (2013). A counselling approach to mediumship: Adaptive outcomes of grief following an exceptional experience. Journal of Exceptional Experiences and Psychology, 1 (2), 12-19.
Falkenhain, M., & Handal, P.J. (2003). Religion, death attitudes, and belief in afterlife in the elderly: Untangling the relationships. Journal of Religion and Health, 42, 67-76.
Finucane, R.C. (1996) Ghosts: Appearances of the dead & cultural transformation. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Flammarion, C. (1922a). Death and its mystery: Before death. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
Flammarion, C. (1922b). Death and its mystery: At the moment of death. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
Flammarion, C. (1923). Death and its mystery: After death. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
Fontana, A., & Frey, J.H. (1994). Interviewing the art of science. In N.K. Denzin, & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp.361-376). London: Sage.
Glazier, J.W., Beck, T., & Simmonds-Moore, C. (2015). A phenomenological analysis of the relationship between grief, stress and anomalous experiences. Mortality, 20, 248-262.
Guggenheim, B., & Guggenheim, J. (1995). Hello from heaven! New York: Bantam Books.
Gurney, E., with Myers, F.W.H. (1889). On apparitions occurring soon after death. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 5, 403-485.
Gurney, E., Myers, F.W.H., & Podmore, F. (1886). Phantasms of the living (2 vols.). London: Trübner.
Haraldsson, E. (1981). Apparitions of the dead: A representative survey in Iceland. In W.G.Roll, & J. Beloff, with J. McAllister (Eds.) Research in parapsychology 1980 (pp. 3-5). Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press.
Haraldsson, E. (1988-89). Survey of claimed encounters with the dead. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 19 (2), 103-113.
Haraldsson, E. (1994). Apparitions of the dead: Analysis of a new collection of 357 reports. In E.W. Cook, & D. Delanoy (Eds.) Research in parapsychology 1991 (pp. 1-6). Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press.
Haraldsson, E. (2009). Alleged encounters with the dead: The importance of violent death in 337 new cases. Journal of Parapsychology, 73, 91-118.
Haraldsson, E. (2012). The departed among the living: An investigative study of afterlife encounters. Guilford: White Crow.
Harper, M., O’Connor, R., Dickson, A., & O’Carroll, R. (2011). Mothers continuing bonds and ambivalence to personal mortality after the death of their child – An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 16, 203-214.
Haynes, J. (2011). Experiencing the Presence of the Deceased: Symptoms, Spirits, or Ordinary Life? Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
Heathcote-James, E. (2003). After-death communication. London: Metro.
Hogan, R.C. (2012). The resolution of grief by guided afterlife connections. Journal of Spirituality and Paranormal Studies, 35, 74-80.
Irwin, H.J. (2009). The psychology of paranormal belief: A researcher’s handbook. Hertfordshire: University of Hertfordshire Press.
Kalish, R.A., & Reynolds, D.K. (1973). Phenomenological reality and post-death contact. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 12, 209-221.
Keen, C. (2010). A qualitative exploration of sensing the presence of the deceased following bereavement. Unpublished doctoral portfolio, Lancaster University, UK.
Klass, D., & Steffen E.M. (Eds.)(2017) Continuing bonds in bereavement (2nd ed.): New directions for research and practice. London: Routledge.
Klass, D., Silverman, P.R., & Nickman, S.L. (Eds.)(1996). Continuing bonds: New understandings of grief. London: Taylor & Francis.
Knight, M.[T.] (2010). Whispers of the bones, echoes from an embodied life: Communiqué as a process of emotional, psychological and spiritual growth and education. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual Exploring the Extraordinary Conference, University of York, York.
Knight, M.T. (2011). Ways of Being: The Alchemy of Bereavement and Communiqué. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Kramer, W.H., Bauer, E., & Hövelmann, G.H. (Eds.) (2012). Perspectives of clinical parapsychology. Bunnik: Stichting Het Johan Borgman Fonds.
Krippner, S. (2006). Getting through the grief: After-death communication experiences and their effects on experients. In L. Storm, & M.A. Thalbourne (Eds.) The survival of human consciousness (pp.174-193). London: McFarland & Co.
LaGrand, L.E. (1997). After death communications. Minnesota, Llewllyn.
LaGrand, L.E. (1999). Messages and miracles: Extraordinary experiences of the bereaved. Minnesota: Llewellyn.
LaGrand, L.E. (2001). Gifts from the Unknown: Using extraordinary experiences to cope with loss & change. Lincoln, NE: Authors Choice Press.
LaGrand, L.E. (2011). Healing grief, finding peace: 101 Ways to cope with the death of your loved one. Naperville, Ill: Sourcebooks.
Lang, A. (1897). The book of dreams and ghosts. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.
Langford, J.M. (2013). Consoling ghosts: Stories of medicine and mourning from Southeast Asians in exile. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
MacKian, S. (2011). In possession of my senses? Reflections from social science on engaging with the otherworldly. Paper presented at Exploring the Extraordinary 3rd Annual Conference, 23rd – 25th September, Holiday Inn, York.
MacKian, S. (2012). Everyday spirituality: Social and spatial worlds of enchantment. New York: Palgrave.
McAdams, E.E. & Bayless, B. (1981). The case for life after death: Parapsychologists look at the evidence. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Moody, R.[A]., & Arcangel, D. (2001). Life after loss. London: Rider.
Moody, R.A. (1992). Family reunions: Visionary encounters with the departed in a modern-day psychomanteum. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 11, 83-121.
Moody, R.A., with Perry, (1993). Reunions: Visionary encounters with departed loved ones. New York: Ivy Books.
Morehead, J.W. (2013). From sleep paralysis to spiritual experience: An interview with David Hufford. Paranthropology: Journal of Anthropological Approaches to the Paranormal, 4 (3), 21-28.
Murray, M., & Speyer, J. (2011). Integrating extraordinary bereavement experiences into everyday life. Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Exploring the Extraordinary Conference, Holiday Inn, York.
Nowatzki, N.R., & Kalischuk, R.G. (2009). Post-death encounters: Grieving, mourning, and healing. Omega, Journal of Death and Dying, 59, 91-111.
Nowotny-Keane, E. (2009). Amazing encounters: Direct communication from the afterlife. Melbourne: David Lovell.
O’Connor, F. (2012). Our hope for immortality. Psychical Studies, 81, 6-7.
Osarchuk, M., & Tatz, S.J. (1973). Effect of induced fear of death on belief in afterlife. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27 (2), 256-260.
Osis, K., & Haraldsson, E. (1997). At the hour of death (3rd ed.). Norwalk, CT: Hastings House. [First published in 1977, Avon Books].
Parker, J.S (2004). After Death Communication Experiences and Adaptive Outcomes of Grief. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Saybrook Graduate School, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Petersen, B.A. (2001). Psychology and Ghosts. A Historical Review and Phenomenological Analysis of Apparitions Perceived in the Context of Mourning. Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, Newton, MA.
Poo, M-c. (Ed.)(2009). Rethinking ghosts in world religions. Boston: Brill.
Prince, W.F. (1928). Noted witnesses for psychic occurrences. Boston: Boston Society for Psychic Research.
Randall, J. (2009). The biggest question of all: And one man’s search for an answer. Paranormal Review, 52, 3-12.
Rees, W.D. (1971). The Hallucinatory Reaction of Bereavement. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of London (King’s College), London, UK.
Rees, W.D. (1971). The hallucinations of widowhood. British Medical Journal, 4, 37-41.
Rees, W.D. (1975). The bereaved and their hallucinations. In B. Schoenberg, I. Gerber, A. Wiener, A.H. Kutscher, D. Peretz, & A.C. Carr (Eds.), Bereavement: Its psychosocial aspects (pp.66-71). New York: Columbia University Press.
Rees, [W.]D. (1998). Death and bereavement: The psychological, religious and cultural interfaces. London: Whurr Publishers.
Rees, [W.]D. (2000). The bereaved and the dead. Christian Parapsychologist, 14 (3), 81-86.
Rees, [W.]D. (2010). Pointers to eternity. Ceredigion: Y Lolfa.
Rees, W.D., & Lutkins, S. (1967). Morality of bereavement. British Medical Journal, 4, 13-16.
Rhine, J.B. (1948). Editorial: The value of reports of spontaneous psi experiences. Journal of Parapsychology, 12, 231-235.
Rhine, L.E. (1951). Conviction and associated conditions in spontaneous cases. Journal of Parapsychology, 15, 164-191.
Rhine, L.E. (1953). The relation of experience to associated event in spontaneous ESP. Journal of Parapsychology, 17, 187-209.
Rhine, L.E. (1957). Hallucinatory psi experience. II. The initiative of the percipient in hallucinations of the living, the dying, and the dead. Journal of Parapsychology, 21, 13-46.
Rhine, L.E. (1963). Spontaneous physical effects and the psi process. Journal of Parapsychology, 27, 20-32.
Rhine, L.E. (1978). The psi process in spontaneous cases. Journal of Parapsychology, 42, 20-32.
Robertson, L. (2012). Dreamiumship. Psi Review, 5, 7-10.
Robinson, S., Sayers, S., & Swift, C. (2011). A sense of presence in the land of medicine: How hospital staff respond to encounters with the extra-ordinary. Paper presented at Exploring the Extraordinary 3rd Annual Conference, 23rd – 25th September, Holiday Inn, York.
Roe, C.A. (2009). The role of altered states of consciousness in extrasensory experience. In M. Smith (Ed.), Anomalous experiences: Essays from parapsychological and psychological perspectives (pp.25-49). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
Rogo, D.S. (1974). Parapsychology – Its contributions to the study of death. Omega, Journal of Death and Dying, 5, 99-113.
Rogo, D.S. (1990b). Spontaneous contact with the dead: Perspectives from grief counselling, sociology, and parapsychology. In G. Doore (Ed.) What survives? (pp.76-91). Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.
Rogo, D.S., & Bayless, R. (1979). Phone calls from the dead: The result of a two-year investigation into an incredible phenomenon. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Romanoff, B.D. (2010). Rituals and the grieving process. Death Studies, 22 (8), 697-711.
Rose, M.C. (1999). Christian hope and the ethos of bereavement. Proceedings, Annual Conference of the Academy of Religion and Psychical Research, 1999 (pp. 74-79). Bloomfield, CT: Academy of Religion and Psychical Religion.
Roxburgh, E.C. (2014). “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy”: Making sense of anomalous experiences. Symposium given at the 5th Qualitative Research on Mental Health Conference 2nd – 4th September, Chania, Greece.
Sannwald, G. (1963). On the psychology of spontaneous paranormal phenomena. International Journal of Parapsychology, 5, 274-292.
Schulz, R. (1978). The psychology of death, dying, and bereavement. London: Addison-Wesley.
Sidgwick, H., Sidgwick, E., & Johnson, A. (1894). Report on the census of hallucinations. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 10, 25-422.
Smith, R. (2013). A Century of Apparitions: Revisiting the Census of Hallucinations in the 21st Century. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Coventry University, UK.
Spurr, F.C. (1926). Death and the life beyond. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Staudacher, C. (1998). Beyond grief. London: Souvenir Press.
Steffen, E. (2011). ‘Sense of Presence’ Experiences and their Role in Meaning Making Processes Following Bereavement. Unpublished doctoral portfolio, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK.
Edith, S., & Cooper, C.E. (2017). Sense of presence and other ‘anomalous’ post-death experiences and their positive impact on the bereaved. Talk presented at the 11th International Conference on Grief and Bereavement in Contemporary Society, 12th-15th July, Egas Moniz Building of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Lisbon, Lisbon.
Steffen, E., & Coyle, A. (2011). Sense of presence experiences and meaning-making in bereavement: A qualitative analysis. Death Studies, 35, 579-609.
Stoney, W.E. (2012). The scientific evidence for post-mortem survival. Proceedings, Annual Conference of the Academy of Spiritual and Paranormal Studies, 2012 (pp. 109-123). Bloomfield, CT: Academy of Spiritual and Paranormal Studies.
Taylor, A.E. (1946). The Christian hope of immortality. London: The Centenary Press.
Thalbourne, M.A. (1989). On the psychology of belief in life after death. In G.K. Zollschan, J.F. Schumaker, & G.F. Walsh (Eds.), Exploring the paranormal: Perspectives on belief and experience (pp. 215-236). Bridport, Dorset: Prism.
Tyrrell, G.N.M. (1953). Apparitions (Revised Ed.). London: Gerald Duckworth & Co.
Walter, J. (2008). Mourners and mediums. Bereavement Care, 27 (3), 47-50.
West, D. (1990). A pilot census of hallucinations. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 57 (215), 163-207.
Wooffitt, R. (1992). Telling tales of the unexpected: Organization of factual discourse. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Wooffitt, R. (1994). Analysing verbal accounts of spontaneous paranormal phenomena: A sociological approach. European Journal of Parapsychology, 10, 45-65
Wright, S.H. (1998). Experiences of spontaneous psychokinesis after bereavement. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 62, 385-395.
Wright, S.H. (2002). When spirits come calling: The open-minded skeptic’s guide to after-death contacts. Nevada City, CA: Blue Dolphin.
Wright, S.H. (2006). Lights, radios and telephones that misbehave. In A. Cardoso, & D. Fontana (Eds.) Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Current Research into Survival of Physical Death with Special Reference to Instrumental Transcommunication (pp.283-294). Vigo, Spain: ITC Journal Productions.